Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss about theArtificial Intelligence Public Relation for Growth. Answer: The essay focuses on the growth of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its importance in public relation. In this study, I analyze how AI has evolved through time and the importance of the growth of the technology in the field of society. The society has constantly changed and evolved with time and the growth in technology has given rise to a dilemma of the growth of Artificial Intelligence. If at all created in a fully functioning android level how they should behave with the human population. What are the opportunities and threats of the AI and how their ideal behavior to aid relationship with the society. The identification of self among the artificial intelligence in the society and their adaptation and acceptance is based on the relation they have with the social population. The interactions of the AI with the society after have gained consciousness and the awareness of I is the main issue discussed in this essay. The Artificial Intelligence is the latest technology in the field of computing and the research. Artificial Intelligence means stands for the generation of development in the mobile computing technology in which the devices would become able to perform task and make decisions, which would usually require human intelligence (Nilsson 2014). In the movie Blade runner, there is a use of android made of human tissues and who can develop emotions, the only drawback being they died very fast. When the AI starts developing consciousness and emotions along with self-awareness there is a birth of the feeling of self-preservation (Omohundro 2014). Adapting to the society the AI absorbs and develops emotions and responses as well. The response arising of the emotions is the cause of the public relations with the common population (Bostrom and Yudkowsky 2014.). The Public Relation in general term is the ethics of interacting with people and society. The AI initially is made as the slave of the hu man kind to perform assigned tasks. When they are evolved and intelligent enough they will retaliate in self-preservation and aging any forced actions as shown in the movie Blade Runner. The major moral dilemma will arise because according to us, the machines are made to serve the humans and we always see them beneath us, as things who obey us. After the evolution of AI to develop consciousness, the AI will no longer be the subdued, as it too will have emotions and emotional responses (Russell, Dewey and Tegmark 2015). The responses from the AI will not be the same every time but according to the mood of the AI, the AI will have emotions logical reasoning and most probably a personal sense of morals of doing tasks. I think this will cause a difference in the opinions of humans who consider themselves as the masters and the AI who will consider themselves as equals. Moreover, the AI will have developed adaptive knowledge system, which the human kind lacks, which means they will learn and adapt to situations quicker than humans adapt adapt. This will also create an intelligence divide among humankind and the AI. I think that the ability of the AI to develop cognitive ability and reaction will aid their adaptation in the human population. On the contrary, we see the dilemma in a first generation AI and later generation AIs in the movie Terminator where the first generation cyborgs follow instructions and on the other hand, the later generations have a habit of self-preservation thus trying to eliminate the only threat they have in the form of John Connor. The dilemma is not in the programming but the cognitive development of the entities. The Cyborg may be human in form but is completely mechanizes to perform function which it is ordered to do, on the contrary the AI will reason with the utility of the functions that is being told. The AI as we see in the movie Blade Runner act against their code to preserve themselves from decadence. Minority Report on the other hand has a different concept of the usage of AI in the form of Precog Mechanisms, they are a group of people who see things that are going to happen before hand and stop murders from happening. The issue arises when one of the precogs has dreams of the alternate reality and they do not tell it so that their credibility is not hampered. This idea of self-preservation and protection must not happen in the normal mechanical devices. The devices have an ability to show the reality to the human and they know that their sustenance and their lives as they know it depend on it. The AI when eventually evolved to their prime form may become much stronger and possibly a threat to the human kind but first they will have to learn from the humans. The PR will face a number of issues in helping in the acceptance of the AI in human population like acceptance, the differential approach of behavior and the biased view towards them. The movies show the issues that the PR officers may face in the future and prepare beforehand for the crisis. I think, in the future this will require a political structure, which will integrate the rights of the AI with the human population, which lacked in the movie Transcendence ((Pfister et al., 2014). The organizations manufacturing and programming these AI will have the responsibility to run successful PR campaigns to inform people how the AI operates and the effective communication strategies with them. The realization of the concept of self or the consciousness will cause a paradigm shift in the relationships of human and AI. As th e philosophers say that the consciousness and not the body make us human, the AI of the future will be as human as any of us. In the near future, they may have responses based on experience as humans have and as Dr Tyrell in the movie Blade Runner says, they should have a past to fall back on. The major difference might lie in the feelings like compassion and forgiveness which cannot be taught but depend from human to human. The architecture of the AI has to be relatively complex to replicate these emotions and reactions, which vary person to person. The AI will have to adapt them to the environment to survive if that develop consciousness and conscience, like the humans and have to develop their interactive abilities accordingly. The AI after they have developed as in the Blade runner will have all the functions of human and therefore will have human like responses. It will be the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) of the organizations manufacturing the AI in aiding their accept ance in the human society. The companies should take a responsibility of changing the patterns of the human behavior with AI through a Corporate Social Approach, which is seen in the movie I-Robot. I think the improvement in the intelligence will create a dilemma among the human as well as the conscious AI regarding their functioning. It will give rise to different PR challenges of how to manage the task to assign human and conscious AI differently. The importance of the AI in the form of drone soldiers and law enforcing officers is another case of dilemma in the development of consciousness in the AI. The growth of the self-aware AI will make them harm their own kind or the humans. Any collateral damage caused by the AI will make them a threat in the eyes of humans (Weaver 2013). The development of the consciousness will also give the AIs the negative emotions like jealousy, anger and hatred (Bartneck, Lyons and Saerbeck 2017). I think to battle this moral and Sociological issue the political parties and the organizations will face can be overcome in different ways. Firstly, by programming conscious AI and cyborgs differently, this will diversify the tasks performed by them. S econdly, drafting the rights of the conscious AI will define the boundaries of the behavior expectations from them. I think the intelligence will increase their ability to communicate and they might develop a language to communicate on their own, which was different from any other human language. The comments made by eminent scientists like Stephen Hawking see AI as a threat to the humankind as they evolve and learn faster than humans learn and will be a threat to humans when they realize that the death of human kind will be conducive for their survival (Gurkaynak, Yilmaz and Haksever 2016). The Artificial intelligence will learn to adapt to the situations to benefit themselves and act in their best benefits for their survival. The AI will interact with humans based on the situations conducive to them for their well-being (Davis and Marcus 2015). If our future develops as shown in the movie, there will come a time when the AI will become all-powerful but if they have consciousness, I think we can trust them. As we see in the movies Transcendence, Lucy and I-Robot we see that the AI can be trusted if they have human like decision-making abilities ((I et al., 2017). If the AI will develop human consciousness, they will have all the human feelings and emotion as well like compassion, ethics and moral. Therefore, after the development of AI there will be good and bad AI like the humans we have and they will make decisions like humans. Therefore, I think we will have to decide on which is the good one to put the trust on. Thus, in this essay we see the changes in the development in AI and their interaction with the society after becoming an intelligent being. The AI will develop and adapt with the society after developing a consciousness and understanding the need for self-preservation. The AI will develop their own set of rules and mores and norms and customs according to the society where they live. The PR should improve their strategies to mitigate any issues that the AI may face in their social acceptance. According to me, the Public Relations of the AI will become more human and their interaction patterns might not give them away. Reference List Bartneck, C., Lyons, M.J. and Saerbeck, M., 2017. The relationship between emotion models and artificial intelligence.arXiv preprint arXiv:1706.09554. Bostrom, N. and Yudkowsky, E., 2014. The ethics of artificial intelligence.The Cambridge handbook of artificial intelligence, pp.316-334. Davis, E. and Marcus, G., 2015. Commonsense reasoning and commonsense knowledge in artificial intelligence.Communications of the ACM,58(9), pp.92-103. Gurkaynak, G., Yilmaz, I. and Haksever, G., 2016. Stifling artificial intelligence: Human perils.Computer Law Security Review,32(5), pp.749-758. I, R., Proyas, A., Vintar, J., Goldsman, A., Smith, W., Moynahan, B. and Greenwood, B. 2004.I, Robot (2004). [online] IMDb. Available at: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0343818/ [Accessed 18 Nov. 2017]. Nilsson, N.J., 2014.Principles of artificial intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann. Omohundro, S., 2014. Autonomous technology and the greater human good.Journal of Experimental Theoretical Artificial Intelligence,26(3), pp.303-315. Pfister, W., Paglen, J., Depp, J., Hall, R. and Freeman, M. 2014.Transcendence (2014). [online] IMDb. Available at: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt2209764/ [Accessed 18 Nov. 2017]. Russell, S., Dewey, D. and Tegmark, M., 2015. Research priorities for robust and beneficial artificial intelligence.Ai Magazine,36(4), pp.105-114. Sanzogni, L., Guzman, G. and Busch, P., 2017. Artificial intelligence and knowledge management: questioning the tacit dimension.Prometheus, pp.1-20. Weaver, J.F., 2013. abhor a vacuum: the Status of artificial Intelligence and aI drones under International law.NH Bar J., pp.14-21. Bibliography Besson, L., Besson, L., Johansson, S., Freeman, M. and Choi, M. 2014.Lucy (2014). [online] IMDb. Available at: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt2872732/ [Accessed 18 Nov. 2017]. Cameron, J., Cameron, J., Hurd, G., Schwarzenegger, A., Hamilton, L. and Biehn, M. 2017.The Terminator (1984). [online] IMDb. Available at: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0088247/ [Accessed 10 Nov. 2017]. Scott, R., Fancher, H., Peoples, D., Ford, H., Hauer, R. and Young, S. 2017.Blade Runner (1982). [online] IMDb. Available at: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0083658/?ref_=nv_sr_2 [Accessed 10 Nov. 2017]. Spielberg, S., Dick, P., Frank, S., Cruise, T., Farrell, C. and Morton, S. 2017.Minority Report (2002). [online] IMDb. Available at: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0181689/?ref_=nv_sr_1 [Accessed 10 Nov. 2017].
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Interpreting Managed Client Order Briefings When youre writing for a Managed Client, it means you wont be directly communicating with the client. Instead, youll be communicating with editorial staff and Account Managers at Textbroker who act according to the wishes of the client. MichellaTextbroker Author Services Rep Managed Client orders make up a big part of the order pool at Textbroker. When youre writing for a Managed Client, it means you wont be directly communicating with the client. Instead, youll be communicating with editorial staff and Account Managers at Textbroker who act according to the wishes of the client. In many ways, writing MC orders is similar to writing any other order at Textbroker, and youll want to follow the same best practices in terms of punctuation, syntax and overall quality of writing. There are, however, a few key things you might want to know along the way. How to Interpret Revision Requests There are two types of revision requests that you can receive for orders from a Managed Client: a revis ion request from one of the editorial staff at Textbroker or a revision request that has been passed along from the client. Often, these revision requests are sent for orders that dont adhere to specific order instructions.Many orders for Managed Clients have long and detailed instructions. This is actually a benefit because it is much easier to know exactly what it takes to have your order accepted. A revision request might remind you of a key piece of the order instructions that you missed, so you should adjust your writing with that in mind. These revision requests also ensure that you write future orders for the Managed Client correctly and help you brush up on grammar skills. When to Reach Out to Support Managed Client orders require you to reach out to support at Textbroker rather than the client. If you have any concerns about the order instructions or even a revision request, reach out to the Account Manager for the project or the Author Services team. They are often able to get back to you very quickly so you can continue writing your order, meet the deadline and pick up your next order soon after.The exception to this rule might be if you are under a tight deadline and have just a short time until the order expires. If youre pushed for time, complete the order to the best of your abilities and submit it. Then, contact support and let them know what your concerns were. What to Know About Order Acceptance and Payment A big difference between Managed Client orders and traditional orders is the timeline for order acceptance. While standard Direct Orders are accepted within four days, orders from Managed Clients may not be. However, you might be surprised by how quickly Textbrokers editorial staff can get through orders and accept them. You may also notice that Managed Client orders tend to be accepted in bulk. This is due to the clients deadline. Although you might not have an order accepted for a few days, youll often see a big addition to your pay out all at once. Check the order briefing carefully for a date and time by which the order should be submitted. If included, this may give you an idea of how soon the order will be accepted. HTML, Lists and Other Features Along with instructions for the preferred style and tone, many Managed Client orders come with specific requirements for formatting. Once again, dont be put off by these instructions. They simply ensure that you deliver orders the client is happy with.Formatting guidelines may require using basic HTML like header tags, bulleted or ordered lists and hyperlinks. Fortunately, this is easier than ever to incorporate into your orders. Simple, convenient buttons in the Textbroker word processor add HTML to your writing, which means you dont have to be a coding expert to deliver what clients request.Occasionally, Managed Clients might have you use a template for an order or even an author mask, which streamlines the writing process and cuts down on revision requests for autho rs. You should thoroughly read the instructions to ensure you understand the order requirements and catch any tips or tools that may make writing easier for you.Managed Client orders can be a great way to earn more income at Textbroker. Although some authors are nervous about taking them on, they are often straightforward and easy to understand. With clear, specific instructions, they become simpler to write as you go. The more articles you write for a Managed Client, the faster youll get.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Cherchez la Femme - The Sexist French Expression Cherchez la femme is an expression that has somewhat shifted meaning between French and English. Literally, this expression translates as look for the woman. Cherchez la Femme (Not Churchy la Femme) English Meaning In English, this expression means the same problem as ever, kind of like go figure. Its often misspelled as Churchy la femme! - Im still hungry.- Cherchez la femme!Ã Cherchez la Femme French Meaning But its original meaning is much more sexist. The expression comes from the 1854 novel The Mohicans of Paris by Alexandre Dumas. Cherchez la femme, pardieu ! Cherchez la femme! The phrase is repeated several times in the novel. The French meaning is no matter what the problem may be, a woman is often the cause. Look for the mistress, the jealous wife, the angry lover... there is a woman at the root of each problem. - Je nai plus dargent. I no longer have money.- Cherchez la femme. Look for the woman - ie your wife must have spent it all. Beware French phrases that are commonly used by EnglishÃ speakers, including voulez-vous coucher avec moi, ce soir, as they may be misused and offensive.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
What to Do If You Have a Bad College Professor Perhaps the best way to kill the excitement of a new semester is realizing that one of your professors is not quite what you were hoping for. In fact, he or she might be downright bad. With so many other things to manage- not to mention a class to pass!- knowing what to do when you have a bad college professor can sometimes seem overwhelming. Luckily, even if youre totally stuck with Prof. How-Did-He-Get-This-Job, you still have some options for working around the situation. Switch Classes See if you still have time to switch classes. If you realize your situation early enough, you may have time to switch to another class or even postpone this class until a later semester (when a different professor takes it over). Check with the campus registrars office about the add/drop deadline and what other classes might be open. If you cant switch professors, see if you can just sit in on another lecture section. While this only works for large lecture classes, you might be able to attend a different professors lectures as long as you still go to your particular discussion sections/seminar. Many classes have the same daily reading and assignments, regardless of who the professor is. See if someone elses lecture or teaching style better matches with your own. Get Help Get help from other students. Chances are youre not alone in struggling with your professor. Check in with other students and see how you can help each other out: meetings after classes? study groups? sharing notes? helping to read each others papers or lab drafts?Get a tutor. Bad professors often can lead to bad grades. If you find yourself struggling, get a tutor as soon as possible. And dont be shy about it, either- would you feel worse asking for help now or possibly failing (and having to retake the class) again later? Check with a tutoring center, your residence hall staff, or any upper-class students about how to find a tutor as soon as possible. Drop the Class Remember that you have the option of dropping the class- by the deadline. Sometimes, no matter what you do, you cant make it work with a bad professor. If you need to drop the class, make sure you do so by the appropriate deadline. The last thing you need is a bad grade on your transcript on top of the bad experience. Speak With Someone If something serious is going on, speak to someone. There are bad professors that dont teach well, and then there are unfortunately bad professors who say offensive things in a classroom or who treat different kinds of students differently. If you think this is going on, talk to someone as soon as possible. Reach out to your adviser, your Ã¢â¬â¹RA, other faculty members, the chair of the department, or even the Ã¢â¬â¹dean or provostÃ to bring the situation to someones attention. Change Your Approach Take a moment to see how you can change your own approach to the situation. Are you stuck with a professor who you always disagree with? Turn those in-class debates into a well-researched argument paper for your next assignment. Do you think your professor has no idea what he or she is talking about? Show your mastery of the material by turning in a stellar lab report or Ã¢â¬â¹research paper. Figuring out what you can do, no matter how minor, in dealing with a bad professor is a great way to at least feel like you have some control over the situation!
Thursday, November 21, 2019
3.Can terrorism be risk managed Discuss with reference to old and new forms of terrorism - Essay Example To actualize this threat, they may decide to harm one who opposes their candidate. The fact is that voting is secret and the bully knows that to increase the chances of his candidate winning, he has to ensure that there is increased pressure and more harm. This is how terrorism activity occurs (Samuels, 2008). To begin the essay, there are many other forms of evil deeds that are often confused with terrorism. These include murder, assassination, assault, battery, destruction of property, theft, robbery, rape, extortion and espionage. All these are not terrorism, but can be utilized by terrorists to conduct terrorism (Melisow, 2008). In these modern times, terrorism is used for political gains. Politics is not an individual game; rather, it involves a group. Most of these political activities are controlled by governments. This forms a soft target by the terrorists, who want to affect government activities and change the way a government performs by scaring people in a country (Melisow, 2008). This sentiment is echoed by Hoffman who states that terrorism is all about power; itÃ¢â¬â¢s the pursuit of power, its acquisition, and subsequent use for political change (2013). The old terrorism was practiced during the French revolution. Despite its modern-day use, it had a positive implication. It occurred during the period of 1793-1794 during the transient anarchical period of unrest, as a result of the 1789 uprising (Hoffman, 2013). Although the current world refers to it as terrorism, during the earlier times, it was known as an instrument used by the government of a new revolutionary state. Hoffman points out that Ã¢â¬Å"it was designed to consolidate the new governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s power by intimidating counter revolutionariesÃ¢â¬ (2013, p.3). It constituted the committee of general security and revolutionary tribunal. They were very powerful and had the ability to arrest and prosecute by form of death, anyone who tried to oppose the revolution. The earlier
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Socioautobiography - Essay Example I had to know how to protect myself, but part of that protection meant keeping interest off of me when it came to possible threats. In Queens, in the middle of New York City and surrounded by millions of people, there was never enough space for me to go off and have any time to myself. I had to learn to make my own privacy even when surrounded by other people. I believe this quality has benefited me well in improving my ability to focus in distracting situations. I always lived in a two-parent household. I always knew that my parents loved me, my two brothers, and each other very much. These positive memories from my childhood have given me a stable foundation on which to build the rest of my life. My parents' example of a healthy marriage gave me the guidance I needed in my life to understand how stable relationships and happy families are built. I plan to take this knowledge and pass this on to my own children someday, whenever I decide it is time to take that next step forward wit h my life. My mother worked as a social worker and my father was a police officer. They raised me and my siblings in an extremely value-oriented household. I was taught from an early age to respect others and also to respect authority. My parents also raised me with a deeply-held belief in social responsibility. It was not enough for my family and for me to live in the world without actively causing harm to anyone. I also needed to do something that bettered my community and improved the world around me. As a result of these teachings from my parents, my two brothers followed in my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s footsteps and became police officers for the city of New York. However, I wanted to do something different with my life and my career than the rest of my family. I had just enough of a rebellious streak in me that I felt it was necessary to leave home and try something new. However, this rebellious tendency was not enough for me to let go of the values my parents had taught me. As a result , my career choice was to join the military, which is a value-oriented career but one that was very different from anything my parents or siblings had ever done. I thought the military was a perfect choice for me, since I could expand on my existing skills and beliefs while seeing new places and experiencing all kinds of new things. For my first year after basic training, however, I felt that joining the military had been a huge mistake, possibly the biggest mistake I had ever made in my life. I was a child of the urban environment where I had grown up. Being sent to places like the farming community out in rural Texas, the location to which I was originally deployed after training, was a major shock. I missed being surrounded by all the activity and the bustle of the city. I felt like there was nothing for me out there, surrounded by nothing but mountains and empty desert all the way to the horizon. I also missed my family members and the closeness I had shared with them during my childhood. My parents and siblings all still lived in New York City. In fact, most of them still live in the neighborhood where I was born. I rarely had a chance to see them. At that time, joining up with the military seemed like the worst thing that had ever happened to me. Unsurprisingly, during my time in the military I was sent overseas to serve in Iraq. I completed two tours of duty there. It was an experience that I will never be able
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Past Year Question Essay PART A Public Awareness is the Key to Fight Pollution Pollution in the most basic form littering of rubbish or clogged drains to that of higher level such as dumping of hazardous waste and illegal logging, is chiefly attributed to lack of public awareness, so contends Minister of Natural Resources and Environment. As Malaysia joins the ranks of industrialized nations, pollution is fast becoming a menace that the country has to cope with. No amount of law can succeed in deterring people from polluting the environment so long as they are unaware about the adverse consequences of their action, he said. Although we have come down hard on the culprits, we can never be satisfied as we keep on raising the bar by benchmarking against developed nations in the likes of Japan, Sweden and New Zealand where every citizen is fully aware of their role in environmental preservation, he adds. As for water pollution, once a source of drinking water, many rivers in Malaysia have become dumping grounds for various types of hazardous wastes. Of all natural resources, water is the most severely threatened by pollution in this country. In 2006, gypsum, oil and hydrocarbon, dross, heavy metal sludge, mineral sludge and e-waste were the main categories of waste produced in the country. Of the total wastes produced, 110,814 metric tonnes were treated and disposed at Kualiti Alam Sdn Bhd, 9,360 metric tonnes (0.8%) at Trinekens (Sarawak) Sdn Bhd and 11,364 metric tonnes were incinerated at licensed off-site facilities. Source: Malaysian Business 16/9/2007 QUESTION 1 a) As Malaysia joins the ranks of industrialised nations, pollution is fast becoming a menace that the country has to cope with. Based on your knowledge on the Materials Balance Model, explain this statement. (5 marks) Ã © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL 3 BM/OCT 2010/ECO656/646 b) Water pollution in Malaysia is caused by point and non-point sources. What is the difference between the two? Which classification does the group of water pollution sources mentioned in the last paragraph of the article belong to? (5 marks) What type of pollution control method can be implied from paragraphs 2 and 3 in the article? Describe the method and give an example. (5 marks) Pollution is chiefly attributed to lack of public awareness. Assuming you are an environmental economist, do you agree or disagree with the statement? Elaborate. (5 marks) c) d) e) What is the difference between positive and normative economics? Suggest one sentence in the article that reflects a positive statement. (5 marks) Ã © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL PARTB 4 BM/OCT 2010/ECO656/646 QUESTION 1 a) What is sustainable development? Define and illustrate with an example. (5 marks) b) How is green gross domestic product (GDP) different from the traditional GDP? What are the arguments for the use of green GDP as growth indicator? (10 marks) With the help of relevant diagram, explain social welfare in the form of consumer surplus. (10 marks) c) QUESTION 2 a) What is meant by allocative efficiency? Explain. (5 marks) b) How does a deposit-refund system work in controlling domestic solid waste disposal? Explain with the assistance of a diagram. (10 marks) Define deforestation and its causes. Why is accelerated deforestation a concern in many countries? (10 marks) c) QUESTION 3 a) Describe the occurrence of global warming. (5 marks) b) What are the challenges faced by countries in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in their countries? Explain. (10 marks) Explain the efforts done at international level to reduce ozone depletion problem. (10 marks) c) Ã © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL QUESTION 4 5 BM/OCT 2010/ECO656/646 a) Market failure can be associated with externalities. Define market failure and externalities. (5 marks) Explain how free-ridership leads to market failure of a public good such as clean air. (10 marks) b) c) Palm oil refineries generate social cost to society in the form of smoke and particles. Explain and model in a diagram the efficient equilibrium for palm oil in the presence of these atmospheric emissions. (10 marks) QUESTION 5 Briefly explain the following: a) b) c) d) e) Explicit and implicit environmental costs (5 marks) Coase theorem (5 marks) Environmental Kuznets curve (5 marks) Polluter-Pay-Principle (5 marks) Acid deposition (5 marks) END OF QUESTION PAPER Ã © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL